He was known for Surrealism and solitude and for having turned down France’s top literary prize, Julien Gracq (the pen name of the French writer Louis Poirier who was known as one of the last links to the pre-World War II Surrealist movement) died on Saturday in Angers, France. He was 97. His literary debut came in 1938 with “Au Château d’Argol” (“The Castle of Argol”), a novel known for a Surrealist tinge, which garnered praise from André Breton. Infuriated by criticism of some of his early works and tightly defensive of his privacy, Mr. Gracq turned against French literary circles and rejected the Goncourt Prize, for which he had been chosen in 1951 for “Le Rivage des Syrtes” (“The Opposite Shore”), his best-known novel. For many years, Mr. Gracq taught high-school history and geography. All told, he published 20 works — including novels, essays and plays.